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History

 

Mechanical Engineering has ancient origins and has always accompanied the technological evolution, triggering significant economic and social changes in human society. The discipline of mechanical engineering has expanded its horizons and relations with  physics and mathematical sciences, and provided knowledge through the creation of relatively new schools of engineering.

The oldest Italian document in which the term "engineer" is found, dates back to April 19th, 1195, a deed of sale drawn up in Genoa. It is possible to find many other documents subsequent to that in which, both in Italy and in France, the word engineer becomes the technical jargon to refer to qualified experts in the design of fortifications, bridges, mills, military machines and hydraulic works.

industry

There are also legendary figures in the history of science and technology, such as that of Leonardo. The Italian Renaissance is certainly a time of great growth of "ingegnium". Beside Leonardo, there are several other authors.

The origin of Mechanical Engineering in the most modern sense, however, can perhaps be placed at the time of European industrial revolution of the eighteenth century. A series of processes speed up with the advent of the steam engine: these lead to the development of mechanical engineering. This period marks the beginning of the steam engine that will lead to the development of technology and thermodynamics. This is time of the advent of the high speed of rotation and actuation of the devices which will mark the transition from the static to the dynamic concept in the study of the machines; is the era of the first large factories, of major rail projects and of large boats, with their problems of management of production processes from scratch. In this new context  real schools of engineering are developed: the first is the "Ecole Polytechnique", founded in 1794, in France, by Napoleon Bonaparte. This school was followed by the "Ecole du Genie Militaire". For the first time the aim is to form engineers with a strong background in mathematics and physics. For the first time there are courses for engineers: Mechanics, Machine Design, Chemistry, Fortification and Architecture.

The UK is characterized by a strong industrial policy, ranging from new systems of communication by sea and by land, the mechanization of production. The UK training is based on a hard work run by industrial corporations, through associations of engineers, including one of the most famous' Institution of Civil Engineers, founded in 1771. This is the age of the engineers, between the end of '700 and the 800, with the strong impetus for industrial production, fast cars, organized factories, especially in Europe and the United States.

westinghouse-works

Talking about the beginning of World War II. This is the era of the great names of engineers-inventors and captains of industry ranging from mechanics, electrical systems, optics. They are the first children of this new engineering concept  with strict scientific rules, they have learned the scientific method to implement technological innovations, that know the importance of solid foundation in mathematics and physics, as well as the organization of research laboratories.

In this new army of engineers militate top names such as: Edison, Marconi, Siemens, Ford, Westinghouse, Bell, Zeiss. Their method is so powerful that their organizations have survived the disappearance of their own founders.

Then, in 1817 was established the School of Engineers of papal Rome by Pope Pius VII, who in 1824 merged with the University of Rome.

These are the origin of the way in which academic students of Mechanical Engineering entrust their preparation. And these are the origins of the industry in which they will find their work placement. A world that has deep roots, housed in the cloister of San Pietro in Vincoli, in the frame of the wisdom that is born in 1303 as the Studium Urbis: Just a few years after the act of Rainaldus encignericus.